A skull showing parietal trepanation, collected by Hilton-Simpson (1920, or 1913?) from El-Kantara in the Aurès (Algeria). The skull is "archaeological" rather than recent, having been dug up on the road and there is no ante-mortem history of the specimen. It may well be a Roman skull. Part of the Hilton-Simpson collection of trepanning instruments from the Aurès and skull fragments, in the Pitt-Rivers Museum, Oxford, England.
Credit: "Trepanation of The Skull by The Medicine-men of Primitive Cultures, With Particular Reference to Present-day Native East African Practice", by Edward Lambert Margetts (in Proceedings of the Third World Congress of Psychiatry, Montreal, Canada (4-10 June 1961). University of Toronto Press/McGill University Press, Vol.II, 1962). Extracts published on the internet by the International Trepanation Advocacy Group (ITAG), from where this image was taken.